Having expelled 800,000 Palestinians from the 80% of Palestine they occupied in 1948, committed massacres against the Palestinians and plundered all Palestinian lands, homes and possessions, the Zionist leaders continued their campaign of war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide against the Palestinians. From 1948 to 1967 they committed these crimes according to a carefully designed and calculated policy.
The personal diary of Moshe Sharett sheds light on this question by amply documenting the rationale and mechanics of Israel's "Arab policy" in the late 1940's and the 1950's. The policy portrayed, in its most intimate particulars, is one of deliberate acts of Israeli provocation, intended to generate Arab hostility and thus to create pretexts for armed action and territorial expansion. Sharett's records document this policy of "sacred terrorism" and expose the myths of Israel's "security needs" and the "Arab threat" that have been treated as self-evident truths from the creation of Israel to the present, when Israeli terrorism against Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and against Palestinians and Lebanese in South Lebanon, has reached an intolerable level. It is becoming increasingly evident that the exceptional demographic and geographic alterations in Israeli society within the present generation have been brought about, not as the accidental results of the endeavor to guard "Israel's security" against an "Arab threat" but by a drive for lebensraum.(1)
The Haganah, the Irgun Z'vai Leumi and the Stern Gang cooperated together in committing these crimes against the Palestinian Arabs. When they formed the Israeli army some units of this army, namely the commandos and the Frontier Guards, were in charge of expelling Arab villagers and Beduins from the areas they occupied. The Jewish National Fund and the Custodian of Enemy Property were in charge of the plunder, looting and usurpation of Arab lands, homes and worldly possessions.
When Livia Rokach read Moshe Sharett's diaries in Hebrew, she extracted and translated the most important points regarding Israel's strategic aims after 1948, to be realized through the following means:
(a) New territorial conquests through war. Although
the 1949-50 armistice agreements assigned to Israel a territory
one-third larger than had the UN partition plan, the Israeli
leadership was still not satisfied with the size of the state, the
borders of which it had committed itself to respect on the
international level. It sought to recover at least the borders of
mandate Palestine. The territorial dimension was considered
to be a vital factor in Israel's transformation into a regional
(b) Political as well as military efforts to bring about the liquidation of all Arab and Palestinian claims to Palestine through the dispersion of the Palestinian refugees of the 1947-49 war to faraway parts of the Arab world as well as outside the Arab world.
(c) Subversive operations designed to dismember the Arab world, defeat the Arab national movement, and create puppet regimes which would gravitate to the regional Israeli power.(2)
To implement this strategic purpose the Israeli army needed special units which could operate without any conventional restraints. When General Moshe Dayan was Commander of the Southern Command, he formed a special commando-like patrol unit for raids across the border. When he became Head of Operations of the General Staff, Dayan was in favor of forming a special unit and later remarked:
We were in need of a man of daring, a man with
a great deal of personal ambition, a skilled leader, who would be
flexible and original enough to adapt literal orders according
to the situation he found himself in.
This force could not be allowed to disobey orders or change the goals that had been decreed from above. On the other hand, this was a new and special unit, aforce that would have to establish and carry out novel methods of warfare. Therefore the commander of this new force had to be superior in his ability to think and perceive clearly and coolheadedly. Arik Sharon seemed'to fill all these requirements.(3)
Having previously experimented with the concept, and having a ruthless candidate to command such a unit, Dayan engineered the approval of the General Staff for the plan proposed by Brigadier Michael Shaham to create "a special forces unit that would operate behind the armistice lines in reprisal and preemptive strikes against the Arabs."4)
"Thus came into being the commando force that had such an influence upon the structure and methods of action of the Israeli army today ... There was no happier man alive than Arik Sharon as he received the new appointment. He became one of the chosen few who are able to realize a cherished dream... It was with the formation of the new force, and the deviation from conventions that this implied, that Arik Sharon began his march to glory ..."(5)
Called Commando Unit 101, Sharon's command was to become synonymous with infamous crimes and the depths of depravity in an armed force. They became "a group of bloodthirsty adventurers, leaping at a chance to fire at others."(6)
The original nucleus of Commando Unit 101 was composed of volunteers who were "veterans of the Palrnach, soldiers of the 'Golani' and 'Gvati' Brigades and paratrooper."(7) Sharon trained them to be even more proficient as killers, and imbued in them the concept that they were above and beyond any kind of moral restraints, or even any discipline except within the confines of Commando Unit 101. On one occasion when a member of Commando Unit 101 was apprehended by military policemen for a minor motor vehicle infraction, a squad of the unit's goons raided the military police station in Tiberias and "beat up three policemen so severely that they required hospitalization." Sharon "punished" the culprits "by granting them two weeks leave."(8)
Sharon further encouraged contempt for any kind of authority by "addressing his superiors with an impudence bordering on insubordination ... Arik regularly referred to the senior commanders of the IDF and the more well-known members of the government as 'dumb shits' or 'assholes,' adding vivid descriptions of the sex life that he assumed they must lead."(9)
"Within two months, the 40 men of Command Unit 101 had been turned into a group of soldiers that craved battle. Gradually, Arik began sending small groups on reconnaissance missions and ambushes over the border.'"(10)
In September, 1953, Command Unit 101 was given the task "to remove the Beduin tribe of Azama from the Negev Desert." When even some of his men "voiced their reservations about using a top army unit to fight a group of defenseless civilians," Sharon responded:
By removing the Beduins, the country is preserving its sovereignty. The Beduins were growing accustomed to seeing our land in the desert as their own, and had we not acted now, it would have been very difficult in the future to build new settlements, or a road."(11)
"Finally, Commando Unit 101 was authorized to organize and carry out a raid against the Palestinian refugee camp El-Burj in the Gaza Strip. Arik's plan was to trap Arab refugees in a crossfire between two groups of soldiers, killing a large number of them. One member of the 101st, Shmuel Falah, objected.
"As they sat around the fire discussing the operational plans for the raid, Falah announced, 'I'm not going to take part in this kind of raid. We should be attacking military targets within Egypt and not civilian targets. After we're successful on this mission, the Egyptians and the guerrillas I will only intensify their activities against our own civilian I population ...'
"Arik did not respond directly to Falah. Instead he offered him a smaller role, to blow up the home of the Egyptian I commander who lived near the refugee camp. Falah, together with two other soldiers, accepted this assignment, while the others set out to complete the main part of Arik's plan.
"The results were lethal. Fifteen residents of the camp were killed, including a number of women and children. At the summary of the mission, a number of men voiced their reservations: 'Are a few hundred miserable refugees, including women and children, our real enemy?' they asked incredulously.
"Arik replied, 'The women are the whores of the Arab infiltrators who have been attacking our civilians. If we don't act forcefully against the refugee camps they will turn into comfortable nests for murderers."(12)
Sharon's opportunity to assume control of the paratroopers soon came, when David Ben-Gurion, Defense Minister Pinhas Lavon, the Chief of the General Staff, Mordecai Maklef, and the Chief Operations Officer, Moshe Dayan, concocted the notorious raid against Kibya. A General Staff officer, Meir Amit, the only officer to later hold the post of Head of Military Intelligence and then Head of Mossad, "carried Dayan's operational order to the Central Sector command to be translated into acti0n."(13)
"Even acting Prime Minister Moshe Sharett had only a vague idea of the evolving action. No one had bothered to inform him about what it would entail or listen to his reservations about any kind of military action."(14)
With the exception of acting Prime Minister Moshe Sharett, practically all of the top Zionist leadership of the time were thirsting for war.
raised as usual some inspired questions ... such as do we have a chance to occupy the Sinai and how wonderful it would be if the Egyptians started an offensive which we could defeat and follow with an invasion of that desert. He was very disappointed when I told him that the Egyptians show no tendency to facilitate us in this occupation task through a provocative challenge on their side.(15)
But the conspiracy of Ben-Gurion, Lavon, Maklef, and Dayan to attack Kibya across the Jordanian border was implemented. In his diary entry for October 15, 1953, Sharett recorded his reaction:
I was simply horrified by the description in Radio Ramallah's broadcast of the destruction of the Arab village. Tens of houses have been razed to the soil and tens of people killed. I can imagine the storms that will break out tomorrow in the Arab and Western capitals.(16)
In his diary on the following day, October 16, Sharett wrote:
I must underline that when I opposed the action
I didn't even remotely suspect such a bloodbath. I thought that I was
opposing one of those actions which have become routine in
the past. Had I remotely suspected that such a massacre was
to be held, I would have raised real hell ...
Now the army wants to know how we at the foreign ministry are going to explain the issue. In a joint meeting of army and foreign ministry officials, Shmuel Bendor suggested that we say that the army had no part in the operation, but that the inhabitants of the border villages, infuriated by previous incidents and seeking revenge, operated on their own. Such a version will make us appear ridiculous: any child would say that this was a military operation ...(17)
In his diary entry for October 17, Sharett reports the opinion of Yehoshafat Harkabi, then Assistant Chief of Military Intelligence, that "It is impossible that the Jordanians did not get the impression that the bombing of Kibya means, if not a calculated plan to cause war, then at least the willingness to have one starting as a consequence of this action."(18)
I condemned the Kibya affair that exposed us in front of the whole world as a gang of blood-suckers, capable of mass massacres regardless, it seems, of whether their actions may lead to war. I warned that this stain will stick to us and will not be washed away for many years to come ... It was decided that a communique on Kibya will be published and Ben- Gurion was to write it ... Ben-Gurion insisted on excluding any responsibility of the army ... I said that no one in the world will believe such a story and we shall only expose ourselves as liars.(19)
Former Knesset member Michael Bar-Zohar, a biographer of Ben-Gurion, confirms that Ben-Gurion lied:
Ben-Gurion believed that under certain circumstances, it was permissible to lie for the good of the state. But Moshe Sharett was astounded by his behavior. "I told my wife Zipporah that I would have resigned if it had fallen to me to step before a microphone and broadcast a fictitious account of what happened to the people of Israel and to the whole world."(20)
Sharon's personal war to gain control of the Israeli army's paratroopers had a victorious outcome as a result of the Kibya raid. When the operational plan for the raid was presented at Central Command's headquarters, the deputy commander of the paratroop battalion balked at accepting the assignment. Moshe Dayan had intended for the paratroop battalion to attack Kibya, while Commando Unit 101 was to "be responsible for the diversionary action in Shukba and Nahalin.(21)
The refusal of the paratroop battalion's command to participate in the Kibya raid resulted in Sharon's gaining total command of the raid, combining his own Commando Unit 101 with all of Israel's paratroopers. The head of the paratroopers, Lt. Col. Yehuda Harari, was subsequently forced to resign and Sharon amalgamated Commando Unit 101 and the paratroopers into one command, "designated Unit 202."(22) From that day until today, when every senior Israeli army officer has served in the paratroopers, the paratroopers became the "murder" arm of the Israeli army, carrying out raids against civilians and murdering defenseless women and children. Only by sharing in this type of guilt with his fellow paratroopers can an Israeli officer hope to reach a senior rank. In "1955 Sharon's force was expanded into the 202nd Parachute Brigade."(23)
Participation in the crimes perpetrated from 1948 to 1967 against Palestinians became a qualification for promotion for the Israeli officer corps. No career officer could achieve promotion until he had first taken part in the commission of these crimes.
The Records of the United Nations Security Council from 1948 to 1967 include letters, verbatim records of Security Council Meetings, and Reports of the United Nations Truce Supervision units containing hundreds of reports documenting these crimes. They include the following:
1. The assassination of UN Mediator Count Folke Bernadotte.
2. Expulsion of Palestinian villagers.
3. Attacks on Palestinian villages, destroying houses and murdering civilians.
4. Attacks on civilian aircraft.
5. The massacre of Kibya.
6. Dragging a medical doctor from his car on the Bethlehem- Hebron road: shooting him and killing him with two bullets lodged in his eyes.
7. The Nahalin massacre.
8. Attacks on Palestinian villages in the Syrian truce zones and on Syrian villages.
9. The massacre of Hussan.
10. Attacking a Lebanese aircraft.
11. Expelling Beduins.
12. Shelling and air attacks against villages in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Egypt and Saudi Arabia.
UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL RECORDS
24 JULY 1950
A fighter aircraft of the Jewish air force violating the Lebanese frontier and the armistice boundaries established by decision of the Security Council has attacked over Lebanese territory a Lebanese civil aircraft of the Compagnie Generale Transports on regular service between Beirut and Jerusalem, in the following circumstances:
The Lebanese aircraft, carrying twenty-four civilian passengers, men, women and children, fourteen of whom were Jordanians, eight Americans and two Danes, left Kalandia Airport at 1530 GMT on 24 July and set its course 080 in the direction of Amman, flying over Jerusalem at 7,000 feet KFF, then continuing in the same direction as far as Amman at altitude 8,500 feet, then set its course at 350 degrees in the direction of Hermon leaving it thirty kilometres to the left and flying over the foothills of Hermon. After reducing its height for about three minutes to altitude 7,000 feet, and at about seventeen minutes from Beirut, it saw a fighter aircraft bearing a star on a coloured background with horizontal bands on the rudder. This aircraft approached very near the Lebanese aircraft seven or eight times, lowering and raising its landing gear; the Lebanese aircraft, being over mountainous Lebanese territory, proceeded towards Beirut, its nearest aerodrome. At this moment the fighter attacked it from the rear with a machine gun, and it was hit by several bursts and pursued to altitude 2,000 feet near Saida. One passenger was killed, seven were wounded and the radio navigator, who was seriously wounded, died later. The French pilot, who was wounded, was able to continue as far as Beirut, avoiding disaster. The weather was very fine and the sky clear; therefore, the registration markings on the Lebanese aircraft were fully visible.
This unwarranted and premeditated attack over Lebanese territory against a defenseless civil aircraft constitutes a flagrant violation of the armistice conditions laid down by the Security Council and shows total disregard for United Nations principles, the laws of war and the most elementary principles of humanity. 1950 30 MARCH 1951
The village of Baqqara is situated within the demilitarized zone on the western side of the Jordan River in the Huleh area. It goes without saying that such an action is a flagrant violation of article V, paragraph 2 of the General Armistice Agreement, which stipulates that no hindrance to the restoration of normal civilian life by the inhabitants could be allowed in the demilitarized zone.
5 APRIL 1951
During the night of 5 April 195 1, several houses in the Arab villages of Baqqara, Ghanname, and Khoury Farm in the central sector of the demilitarized zone, and Nuqueib in the southern sector of the demilitarized zone, were destroyed by explosives or by fire. This hostile and inhuman act by Israel forces which had occupied the demilitarized zone was committed with the intention of hindering the Arabs of these villages from returning to their homes and with the intention of placing the United Nations authorities, in charge of assuring the return to normal civilian life, before a fait accompli. This act constitutes a violation of article V, paragraph 2, and sub-paragraphs 5 (c) and 5 (e) (of the Armistice agreements).
5-6 APRIL 1951
In the night of 5-6 April, the Israelis destroyed by explosives several houses in Baqqara, Ghanname, Khoury Fann and Nuqueib, adding thus to all their crimes inhuman and treacherous acts committed in the darkness against deserted and defenseless localities.
On 5 April, Samra village was occupied by the Israelis.
10 APRIL 1951
On 10 April 1951, a detachment of Israel police, who had illegally entered the demilitarized zone, opened fire on the Arab village of Nuqueib with the intention of occupying it in conformity with the Israel plan of systematic and progressive occupation of the demilitarized zone. This act, which reveals the Israel plan to exercise an absolute sovereignty over the demilitarized zone, is a flagrant violation of article 11, paragraph 2, and of article V, paragraphs 1,2,5 (c) and 5 (e) (of the Armistice agreements).
14 APRIL 1951
On 14 April 1951, two bulldozers driven by Israelis undertook the task of levelling all the houses in the village of Baqqara that had escaped destruction on 6 April. This act, verified by a United Nations observer, constitutes a violation of article V, paragraph 2 and sub-paragraphs 2,5 (c) and 5 (e) (of the Armistice agreements).
2 MAY 1951
United Nations observers visited the Arab village of Shamalne at the southern end of the central sector of the demilitarized zone at 1345 hours GMT. They reported that Arabs of the village informed them that, at 0530 hours GMT on 2 May, an Israel patrol had seized their cattle, which were grazing near the demarcation line in the demilitarized zone. The Israel patrol, they said, had fired on Arab shepherds. Small-arms fire was heard in that village and Arab villagers armed with rifles attempted to recover the cattle. The Israel patrol had by that time driven the cattle well within Israel territory and had already killed fifteen cows. An exchange of fire between Arab civilians and the Israel patrol is reported to have taken place in a position in the demilitarized zone until 0900 hours GMT. Arab civilians claimed that two of their number had been wounded during the engagement. United Nations observers reported that they had seen Israel Military aircraft flying over the defensive area. 1951
4 MAY 1951
At 0655 hours GMT on 4 May the senior Syrian representative to the Israel-Syrian Mixed Armistice Commission stated that at 0245 hours GMT Israelis had started heavy mortar and machine-gun fire on positions held by Arab civilians in the vicinity of the demilitarized zone. The Syrians claim that the attack was repulsed but that heavy firing continued until 0530 GMT, followed by sporadic firing. United Nations observers heard heavy mortar and machinegun fire between the hours of 0245 and 0530 GMT in the direction of Shamalne village in the southern end of the central sector of the demilitarized zone. The observers saw mortar explosions. The Syrians state that one Arab civilian has been killed and eight wounded so far.
6 MAY 1951
The following report was received at 0600 GMT on 6 May from the United Nations observer who spent the night of 5 May in the Shamalne area in the southern part of the central part of the central sector of the demilitarized zone. At 0025 GMT intense mortar fire lasting fifteen minutes was opened on the Arab positions above Shamalne village, with several rounds falling on the village itself. There was in addition considerable rifle and automatic weapons fire. At 0150 GMT twelve additional shellbursts were observed on the Arab positions. Beginning at about 0200 GMT Shamalne village was shelled with heavy mortar and field artillery guns, at least 100 rounds falling in the village or its close proximity. Shamalne village in the demilitarized zone was the target of the fire. Since 0430 GMT the mortar fire decreased and shells landed on an adjoining hill. Numerous casualties have been reported, the observer seeing three Arab dead and two wounded. Sixteen shell impacts have been observed. At 0600 GMT the Arabs were still holding their positions.
7 MAY 1951
The senior Syrian representative complained on 7 May that at 0030 GMT the previous day the Israel Army had violated the general Armistice Agreement by attacking with artillery, air force and infantry, the Arabs of Shamalne village who were expelled from the demilitarized zone, leaving behind six killed and forty-seven wounded. The Syrian complaint alleged that artillery and mortar shells fell in Syrian territory, killing one Syrian officer and one seven year old girl, and wounding two women.
9 MAY 1951
Early this morning, 9 May, Israel forces started shelling and machine-gunning the village of Shamalne. Several bombs fell on the Buteiha area (Syrian territory), and on the Syrian outpost of Al-Hassel; and one woman was killed. This aggressive move took place after the cease-fire resolution of the Security Council was adopted and relayed to the parties.
19 SEPTEMBER 1951
Incidents in the Gaza strip area, in so far as they could not be disposed of by a sub-committee of the Mixed Armistice commission, have been considered by the Mixed Armistice Commission itself. At a meeting held on 23 September 195 1, it examined an Egyptian complaint alleging that on 19 September Israelis had shelled the Beit Hanum area in the Gaza strip and that they had blown up a number of houses, killing and injuring some Arabs. The Commission adopted the following resolution by unanimous vote:
"The Mixed Armistice Commission,
Having examined the Egyptian complaint dated 19 September 195 1 and the report of the investigation carried out by the United Nations observer,
Decides that the action carried out by Israelis on 19 September 1951 is a violation of article 11, paragraph 2, of the Egyptian-Israel Armistice Agreement."
19 OCTOBER 1951
A raid during the night of 19 October resulted in the destruction of the Gaza ice factory, the death of one Arab boy and the injury of eleven other persons.
2 SEPTEMBER 1953
On 2 September 1953, the Israel authorities started works to change the bed of the River Jordan in the central sector of the demilitarized zone. The purpose of these works was to divert the river into a new channel, in order to make it flow through territory controlled by the Israel authorities. These acts were accompanied by military operations, also in the central sector of the demilitarized zone. Partial mobilization has been carried out behind the sector in question.
14 OCTOBER 1953
On Wednesday, 14 October 1953, at 9:30 p.m., a battalion scale attack was launched by Israeli troops on the village of Qibya in the Hashemite Kingdom of the Jordan. The Israelis entered the village and systematically murdered all occupants of many houses, using automatic weapons, grenades, and incendiaries, and dynamited houses over victims' heads. On 14 October the bodies of 42 Arab civilians were recovered. Four men and 38 women and children bore small arms or grenade wounds. Several more bodies were still under the wreckage. Forty houses, the village school, and a reservoir were destroyed. Twenty-two cattle were killed and six shops looted. Approach roads from neighbouring villages were mined. Several men of the village police and National Guard, who were absent on frontier duty preventing Jordan infiltrators from entering Israel, lost their families; one man lost his entire family of eleven. Quantities of unused explosives bearing Israel Army markings in Hebrew were found in the village.
On Friday, 18 December 1953, Captain Mansur Mouawad, a Lebanese physician in the service of the Army of the Hashemite Kingdom of the Jordan, was murdered in the most brutal and barbaric manner by an Israeli armed group. This abominable crime was perpetrated at about 2100 hours in the vicinity of Solomon's Pools while Captain Mouawad was driving his private car on the Bethlehem-Hebron road back to his headquarters. Seeing a roadblock ahead of him, the medical officer stopped his car. Whereupon he was dragged from his car and riddled with bullets at close range by the Israeli armed group which, according to the findings of the Jordan-Israeli Mixed Armistice Commission, had crossed the armistice line to commit their hideous massacre. The Commission further found that 15 shots had been fired on the hapless victim of this savage crime who was hit in his head, in his side and in his back. After he had been murdered, two other bullets were lodged in his forehead and two in his eyes.
21 DECEMBER 1953
On 21 December 1953 an armed group attacked a Bedouin camp near Tarqumyia wounding one man. Israel was condemned by the Mixed Armistice Commission for this incident.
21 DECEMBER 1953
On 21 December 1953 an armed group, using explosives and automatic weapons, attacked a house near Hebron killing one pregnant woman and two men, and wounding another man. Israel was condemned for this incident.
17 FEBRUARY 1954
On 17 February 1954, an armed group, using explosives and automatic weapons, attacked a house at Kharass Village (south central area) killing one Jordanian and wounding his ten-year-old son. Israel was condemned by the Mixed Armistice Commission for this incident.
18 FEBRUARY 1954
On 18 February, a patrol of two Egyptian soldiers in Egyptian territory was attacked by armed Israelis hiding in ambush. One of the Egyptian soldiers was kidnapped and killed inside Israel-controlled territory, close to the demarcation line.
19 FEBRUARY 1954
On 19 February armed Israelis opened automatic fire across the demarcation line at an Arab working in his field. The Arab was seriously injured.
29 MARCH 1954
On 29 March at 0700 hours, Nahalin village, an Israel armed force, well equipped, surrounded the village from three directions and penetrated inside the village and opened fire from different automatic weapons, threw hand-grenades and placed mines at some houses, including the mosque of the village. As a result of this brutal attack, 9 persons-8 men and 1 woman-were killed, and 14 others were injured and taken to hospital. Fire lasted for about one hour and a half, and was returned by the village guards. Then the aggressors withdrew. Mines, grenades and other warlike materials bearing Hebrew markings were found on the spot.
This bold attack and cold-blooded murder by Israelis against an innocent Jordanian village constitutes a serious breach of article 111, paragraph 2, of the General Armistice Agreement.
12 JUNE 1954
Israel terrorist activities against the Arab population of Baqqara and Ghannama are continuing. On 12 June 1954, a large part of this population was obliged in desperation to take refuge near the bridge of Banat Ya'coub and to request admission to Syria. Clear proofs of this policy of harassment and evacuation directed against the Arab civilian population of the central demilitarized zone can easily be furnished on request.
4 JULY 1954
On 4 July 1954, a high Israel military officer visiting the two villages of the Arab population of Baqqara and Ghannama said to the Arab population:
"You must do one of two things, either become Israel nationals or leave the zone. vour land. vour houses and vour property and go to an Arab country."
30 AUGUST 1954
On 30 August, an Israel military force of about three platoons crossed the demarcation line into Jordan territory and opened fire against Kh. Sikka and Deir Al 'Asal villages. The group was supported by fire from within Israel. The fire was returned by Arab Legion and National Guard forces. The Israelis withdrew under cover of a smoke screen, leaving munitions, medical supplies and food containers behind them. One Arab legionary was killed and three members of the Arab National Guard were wounded.
1-2 SEPTEMBER 1954
On the night of 1 to 2 September 1954, at about 2100 hours Jordanian time, a large force of Israel soldiers, estimated at battalion strength, crossed the demarcation line from the direction of Im'in. The Israel force opened fire against the village of Beit Liqya well inside Jordanian territory using automatic weapons, hand grenades and 2-inch mortars, and blew a gap with Bangalore torpedoes in the wire fence surrounding this village. At the same time, another Israel force was taking up position in the hills to the south of Beit Liqya, from which they were firing heavily to support those who were trying to enter the village. To the north, near Beit 'Ur at Tahta, an Arab Legion modified troop-carrier, proceeding with reinforcements to the scene, blew up on a land mine which had been planted by Israel soldiers. After the explosion, Israel soldiers who were lying in ambush rushed to the truck, fired automatic weapons and threw an incendiary bomb into it. As a result, two Arab legionaries were killed, one was injured and three were abducted.
Still another force of Israel soldiers advanced into Jordan along the Wadi el Malaqi. When this force was challenged by the Jordanian patrols, the Israelis opened fire with automatic weapons and 2-inch mortars, and threw hand grenades and incendiary bombs. As a result of this action, three Arab legionaries were wounded; one of them is not expected to live.
28 FEBRUARY 1955
Violent and premeditated aggression committed on 28 February 1955 by Israel armed forces against Egyptian armed forces inside Egyptian-controlled territory near Gaza, causing many casualties, including 39 dead and 32 wounded, and the destruction of certain military installations, in violation of, inter alia, article I, paragraph 2, and article 11, paragraph 2, of the Egyptian-Israeli General Armistice Agreement.
9 MARCH 1955
Israel was condemned for an incident of 9 March 1955, when an Arab farmer was wounded in the Gaza strip by an Israel patrol which fired across the demarcation line. The wounded man was captured by two armed Israelis who crossed the demarcation line.
2 APRIL 1955
The Mixed Armistice Commission found that on 2 April, at about 0940 hours local time, Israel soldiers had fired at an Egyptian outpost with rifles, automatic weapons and 3-inch mortars, that an Israel jeep had penetrated 100 metres into Egyptian-controlled territory, and that, as a result of this act of aggression, two Egyptian soldiers had been wounded, one of whom had died of his wounds.
16 OCTOBER 1955
On 16 October 1955, Israel forces opened fire on the village of Dureijat, near the Banat Ya'coub bridge in Syrian territory. Two people were seriously wounded.
22 OCTOBER 1955
On 22 October 1955, shortly before 10:30 p.m., an Israel army detachment consisting of about 150 commandos crossed the armistice demarcation line and entered Syrian territory. The detachment was equipped with heavy arms. After penetrating two kilometres into Syrian territory, the Israelis laid an ambush in the course of which they set fire to a Syrian army car and seized an officer and a soldier. Another military car drove up and was subjected to heavy artillery fire, as a consequence of which a Syrian officer and two soldiers were killed. The Israelis then attacked and burnt a third car. They further seized a non-commissioned officer and two soldiers. During the fighting which followed the above-mentioned operations, five soldiers were wounded. After the Israel detachment had withdrawn, the United Nations observers noted at several points in Syrian territory, traces of the acts of brigandage it had committed. The observers found, among other things, hand-grenades, mines and a large quantity of ammunition; they seized this evidence at the outset of their investigations.
25 OCTOBER 1955
On 25 October 1955, an Israel armoured car opened fire on the inhabitants of the village of Dureijat, killing a woman and wounding a Syrian soldier.
27 OCTOBER 1955
On 27 October 1955, an Israel patrol attacked the village of Banias, seriously wounding an unarmed civilian.
5 APRIL 1956
The Israel armed forces started at 12:30 hours local time this morning to attack the cities of Gaza, Deir el Balah, Abasan and Khozaa in the Gaza Strip.
According to the preliminary reports the casualties of this military attack which has been taking place since this moming are: 33 civilians killed; 92 civilians and 7 of the Egyptian armed forces including an officer injured.
2 AUGUST 1956
At about 02:30 hours Jordan time, an armed group from Israel encountered in this general area another Jordanian patrol and opened submachine gun fire, killing 2 national guardsmen. Israel was held responsible at the 6 August Mixed Armistice Commission emergency meeting.
In the first of these incidents a group from twelve to twenty armed persons crossed the demarcation line from Israel into Egyptian-controlled territory, where they exchangedfire with a three-man Egyptian listening post. Shortly thereafter an Egyptian patrol consisting of a sergeant and three other ranks ran into the Israel patrol still in Egyptian-controlled territory. In the action following, the Egyptian sergeant and two other soldiers were killed. The bodies had extensive wounds caused by grenades and bullets.
The second incident of the night of 16/17 August 1956 occurred on the main Gaza-Rafah road. An Egyptian jeep with six passengers, namely an Egyptian medical officer, a medical orderly and four soldiers, was ambushed and attacked by a group of five to seven men. The ambushing party had laid mines in the road and then attacked the jeep and its occupants with machine gun fire.
The evidence indicates that the victims were killed by small arms fire at close range. Tracks were followed from the scene of the incident all the way to the demarcation line.
21 AUGUST 1956
At approximately 11 :45 hours Jordan time, an Israel patrol crossed the demarcation line in the Kh. Umm ar Rihan area. An exchange of fire developed with a Jordanian patrol, as a result of which three Jordanian national guardsmen were wounded and one Israel soldier killed. Israel was held responsible in the 29 August Mixed Armistice Commission emergency meeting.
30 AUGUST 1956
At 21:30 hours an Israel patrol crossed the demarcation line in Deir el Balah area. A fire fight took place between the patrol and Egyptian troops. The patrol was supported by a mortar. Two Egyptian soldiers were killed, two wounded. Three Egyptian soldiers interrogated at the scene of the incident stated they heard three explosions and an exchange of fire at 21:30 hours from a listening post. When fire stopped they went to the listening post and found one Egyptian soldier dead and a second who died within a few minutes. United Nations investigation revealed incoming and outgoing tracks of approximately fifteen men which led to the demarcation line. The military observer saw two bodies of Egyptian soldiers at listening post. No other casualties.
At 23:40 hours in Sinai an Israel force estimated to be of company strength attacked an Egyptian observation post killing six Egyptian soldiers. The Israelis then withdrew to the demilitarized zone taking with them one jeep with wireless, and other equipment. The physical evidence seen by the United Nations military observer consisted of large bloodstains, empty cartridges with Israel markings, jeep tracks and footprints across the demarcation line. The bodies were removed to Cairo and not seen by the United Nations military observer.
At 21:30 hours in the Rafah area, Israel forces estimated to be of company strength attacked an Egyptian observation post killing one Egyptian officer and four other ranks. The United Nations military observer saw large bloodstains, impacts of bullets and hand grenades, empty cartridges with Israel markings and incoming and outgoing tracks of approximately ten men across the demarcation line. A statement was taken from one wounded in hospital and from the doctor. Bodies were removed to Cairo and not seen by the United Nations military observer.
11 SEPTEMBER 1956
At about midnight, local time, approximately one Israel battalion crossed the demarcation line and blew up the Khirbat ar Rahwah police post and an empty school building in the same area, killing 5 Jordan policemen and 10 Jordan soldiers. Part of this force laid an ambush approximately 5 kilometres inside Jordan along the Hebron-Beersheba road and killed 5 Jordanian soldiers, wounded 3 Jordanian soldiers and damaged 3 Jordanian vehicles. Israel was held responsible at the 19 September Mixed Armistice Commission emergency meeting.
13 SEPTEMBER 1956
At 21:00 hours GMT on 13 September a large Israel force totally destroyed a police post and school at Gharandal, in Jordan. Nine Jordanian policemen and two Jordanian civilians were killed.
25-26 SEPTEMBER 1956
During the night of 25/26 September, Israel forces attacked Sharafi police post near Husan village. The police post was completely demolished. Also a school building in Wadi Fukin village was blown up. Thirty-seven Jordanian soldiers, two of whom were not seen by the United Nations observers, and two Jordanian civilians were killed and eleven Jordanians wounded.
25-26 SEPTEMBER 1956
A major attack was launched on the night of 25-26 September 1956 against the Jordanian territory in the area of Husan where twenty-five Jordanians were killed including a seventy-year-old civilian and a twelve-year-old girl; six others were wounded including a seven-year-old girl.
1 OCTOBER 1956
On the night of 1 October 1956 the Israel army launched a major unprovoked and premeditated military attack against the Jordanian front villages of Qalqiliya, Kh. Sufin, dablah, and En Nabi Ilyas. The attack began at 10:00 pm and ended at 4:30 am the following day upon orders from General E.L.M. Bums, Chief of Staff of the Truce Supervision Organization. The Israel attacking force used heavy arms and war equipment including bombing airplanes. Twenty-five Jordanian soldiers and national guards were killed and thirteen wounded. The Jordanian police post of Qalqiliya was demolished and the villages were shelled.
11 OCTOBER 1956
According to the statement which the Jordanian officer in charge of the Qalqiliya police post made to United Nations military observers on 11 October, a large Israel force, travelling in about 30 vehicles, approached the police post from a northerly direction at about 19:30 GMT. (The police post is approximately one kilometre north of the village of Qalqiliya and approximately 500 metres south and 800 metres east of the demarcation line.) On arrival, the Israel forces attacked the post with small arms and automatic weapons. At 19:50 GMT intense artillery fire was opened on the post from west and north. The twenty policemen and the platoon of national guardsmen in the post then returned the fire. Under cover of artillery and small arms fire, the attacking force gained entry into the post, inflicting casualties among the defenders, some of whom managed to escape, including the officer in charge of the post. Some time after midnight, the police post was totally demolished by explosives. The shelling of the village of Qalqiliya, which had commenced earlier, continued until about 02.20 GMT.
25-26 OCTOBER 1956
On the night of 25-26 September 1956, large Israel regular army forces launched a major, unprovoked and premeditated attack against Jordanian territory in the area of Husan, 10 kilometres south of Jerusalem. Infantry, armoured cars, halftracks, artillery, bazookas and automatic weapons were used in this aggression against Jordan.
30 OCTOBER 1956
On 30 October 1956, 103 inhabitants of Baqqara and Channame villages in the central sector of the demilitarized zone were forced by the Israel authorities to take refuge in Syria; they were forced at gun point to leave their homes and lands; their houses were burned and some of them were taken to Sha'b in Israel territory. The Chief of Staff of Truce Supervision Organization was requested to intervene in order to permit the return of the inhabitants to their villages. United Nations observers were unable to carry out an investigation on the spot owing to the refusal of the Israel authorities to let them enter the central sector of the demilitarized zone.
27 May 1957
At 2 p.m. (Saudi local time) on Monday, 27 May 1957, an Israel destroyer emerging from the port of Elath in a southerly direction, cruised within the Saudi Arabian territorial waters. The same destroyer bombarded with light and heavy fire the coastal position near Taba. Two other Israel destroyers, the same day, undertook similar aggressive acts in that locale. It should be pointed out that the locations of such aggressive acts engulf the traditional land and sea routes of Moslem pilgrims intending to perform their annual religious duties in the Holy Places in Saudi Arabia.
28 May 1957
At 1 a.m. (Saudi local time) on the night of Tuesday, 28 May, two Israel destroyers cruising from Elath opened light and heavy fire on the Al-Tur area. The bombardment lasted over an hour.
29 May 1957
Just after sunset on Wednesday, 20 May, an Israel destroyer with three motor boats violated the Saudi Arabian territorial waters in the Aqaba Gulf, subjecting Saudi coastal positions to powerful searchlights. The same Israel naval units opened light and heavy fire on the coastal area adjoining Al-Tur. The violation of Saudi Arabia's territorial waters by these Israel units was repeated during the day time.
28 JANUARY 1958
On 28 January at 15:00 hours (local time), an Israel military detachment, consisting of twenty-five soldiers and an arrnoured vehicle, entered the northern demilitarized zone. At 15:40 hours (local time), this detachment opened fire on Arab peasants who were working their land and who were placed in a situation of legitimate self-defense.
24 MARCH 1958
During the afternoon of 24 March 1958, between 16:00 hours and 20:30 hours, the Israelis directed heavy fire from the direction of the Israel settlement of Dan on inhabitants and shepherds of the demilitarized zone.
24 MARCH 1958
On 24 March, armed Israel formations, accompanied by agricultural machinery and surveying equipment, penetrated into and commenced work on Arab land of the village of Galbinieh, east of Huleh, and within the demilitarized zone. Subsequently, local inhabitants engaged Israel elements for three hours, after which the Israelis retreated.
26-27 MARCH 1958
During the night of 26-27 March, an Israel launch approached the eastern shores of Lake Tiberias and began firing on Arab land near the Elzaky Gulf.
4 FEBRUARY 1959
On 4 February 1959, an armed Israel patrol composed of four soldiers crossed the international frontier between Palestine and Egypt south of Rafah and penetrated at least two kilometres inside the United Arab Republic territory (southern region). They attacked with their small arms fire a bedouin camp. As a result of this cowardly attack against unarmed civilians, a woman, together with her child, was killed in cold blood and another woman was seriously wounded.
17 FEBRUARY 1959
On 17 February 1959, four citizens of the United Arab Republic were ambushed by an armed Israel patrol three kilometres inside United Arab Republic territory at Wadi Siram (nine kilometres south of El Auja and four kilometres north of Gebel el Sabha). The four Egyptians were fired upon with small-arms fire; consequently, two were killed and one was wounded.
18 SEPTEMBER 1959
On 18 September 1959, and on the days following that date, a number of Bedouin estimated at about 350 of the Azazme tribe, were expelled from the area under Israel control across the international frontier into the territory of the United Arab Republic. Israel troops killed some Bedouin, burned their tents and took their property, as a result of which the Bedouin were compelled to flee into the territory of the United Arab Republic. Those actions were carried out in a harsh and cruel way, contrary to accepted humanitarian considerations. Firing by Israel troops resulted in the killing of one of the Bedouin on the territory of the United Arab Republic across the international frontier.
31 JANUARY 1960
At 1255 hours (local time) on 31 January 1960, Israel forces moved towards Arab farmers in the southern sector of the demilitarized zone north of Lake Tiberias. The farmers were accompanied by a United Nations observer. The Israel forces opened fire on them.
2 MARCH 1961
On 2 March 1961, two Israel aircraft crossed the international frontier and penetrated into United Arab Republic air space. Further finds revealed that these two aircraft, having sighted a flock of livestock inside United Arab Republic territory, had flown at avery low altitude and machine gunned the grazing animals, killing and wounding a number of camels and donkeys.
16-17 MARCH 1962
During the night of 16- 17 March 1962, at about 2300 hours. Israel armed forces carried out a mortar attack on the Arab village of Nuqueib. Then, at 2400 hours, forty Israel arrnoured launches opened fire with automatic weapons on the Syrian military post of El-Douga. At about 0130 hours, Israel artillery at Bouria (R 235-200) launched a violent bombardment of the Syrian village of Squofiye which continued until 0435 hours. At about 0500 hours, Israel military aircraft bombarded the Syrian positions at El-Al, Fiq and Zaki; 0545 hours, they bombarded the area of El-Hamma.
7 FEBRUARY 1963
On 7 February an Israeli gunboat approached the village of Al-Masadiah on the eastern shore of Lake Tiberias, kidnapped a Syrian citizen and stole a Syrian boat from the waters of the river Al-Masadiah, within Syrian territory. This action constitutes a violation of Section 111 of Annex IV and paragraphs 2 and 3 of article 111 of the Armistice Agreement.
2 JULY 1964
On the morning of Thursday, 2 July 1964, Israel forces opened fire on Arab fanners, using automatic weapons, along the Armistice Demarcation Line with a view to harassing them and preventing them from ploughing their land. At the same time, Israel armed forces opened fire on a Syrian post.
5 AUGUST 1964
On Wednesday, 5 August 1964, at exactly 2357 hours local time, Israel armed forces estimated at one infantry platoon supported by automatic weapons attacked some Syrian posts across the Armistice Demarcation Line in the Ainmemoun sector. The attacking Israel armed forces were encountered by Syrian outposts which were compelled to return the fire and to halt their advance. Furthermore, some elements of the attacking armed forces attempted to encircle the post and to strike from the rear, but Syrian armed forces entrusted with the protection of that sector frustrated this attempt and a heavy exchange of fire took place.
13 NOVEMBER 1964
Evidence was given in Arabic and translated into English by the Syrian liaison officer, First Lieutenant Khourdaji.
Witness: Antoine Gaber, Warrant Officer, aged 28 years.
"I am not from Nukheila but have been here about two months. On 13 November 1964, at about 1330 LT, I was in my room in the village, when I suddenly heard firing. This was from heavy machine guns. The firing quickly increased. On going outside I saw tanks on Tel-El-Qadi firing at our village; I think they were about 106 m i . calibre. Later, mortars were fired at the village and I noticed that Abbasieh village was being mortared. About half an hour before shooting started, at about 1250 LT an Israel aircraft flew around the area. I also noticed shelling of Tel Moughi, to the north of the village, Israel aircraft also fired machine guns at the village, knocking out one civilian car, and some civilians were evacuated to a hospital, and some of them were badly injured. The aircraft also fired three or four rockets and dropped bombs on the village and on Tel Moughi. The firing stopped at about 1400. There was no firing from Nukheila after this time. The Israelis however continued firing from Sambaria Tel-El-Qadi and did not stop until 1530."
17 MARCH 1965
On 17 March 1965, Israel tank crossed the road located within Syrian territory to the north of Tel-El-Qadi in the northern sector under the protection of Israeli military elements entrenched in the hill. These elements opened automatic fire from their posts. Two Israel tanks also opened their fire on Syrian territory. One Syrian was killed and two others were seriously wounded. Two Syrian tractors and two bulldozers were destroyed. The Syrian delegation to ISMAC lodged an urgent complaint in respect of each of these acts of aggression.
22 MAY 1965
On 22 May, at approximately 1300 hours, an Israel armoured launch approached the eastern shore of Lake Tiberias, facing the village of El Koursi in Syrian territory and opened fire with heavy automatic weapons and mortars across the Armistice Demarcation Line and in the direction of Syrian positions. The fire lasted fifteen minutes and was returned.
27 MAY 1965
On 27 May, 1965 an Israel force crossed the Armistice Demarcation Line into Jordan and activated demolition charges against a house which was completely destroyed. Israel forces demolished an inhabited home in Jordan and as a result of this act a man, a boy and a small girl were killed. A third house in Jordanian territory was cracked and extensively damaged by an explosive projectile. The Israel force fired at a Jordanian routine patrol which found the Israel force in Jordan's territory; a Jordanian soldier was wounded. This raid, committed by the Israel forces against Jordanian civilian inhabitants and their properties, resulted in the death of two men and three children, the youngest being only four years old; and the wounding of two adults and three children, the youngest victim a two-year-old baby.
20 AUGUST 1965
On 20 August 1965, a collision took place between a taxicab driven by an Arab living in Israel and a motor scooter driven by a Jewish youth in the city of Ramle, 10 miles east of Jaffa-Tel-Aviv, which resulted in the death of the youth.
On Sunday, 22 August, immediately after the funeral, a mob of more than 300 Jewish Israel toughs attacked the Arab quarter in Ramle with the intention of murdering the Arab inhabitants and destroying the whole Arab quarter.
The magazine Newsweek, in its issue of 6 September 1965, described the horrible scene in the following words:
"The mob, delirious with hate, swarmed towards the ghetto with clubs and stones in hand, shouting 'Kill them, kill them! ' while behind the shuttered windows, families huddled in fear. It was the onslaught of the classic pogrom ... except that the would-be lynchers were Jews ....
"After the funeral of the dead boy, dozens of swaggering young Jewish toughs clustered together angrily in the centre of Ramle. Suddenly, amid cries of 'Let's get the Arabs,' about 300 of the toughs -mostly teenagers-charged through the streets toward the Arab quarter. In the market square outside the entrance to the Arab quarter, the mob ran into a wall of steel-helmeted police armed with riot-shields. The kids charged twice, then retreated to search for easier targets. They stoned an old man in kaffiyeh head-dress almost to death and a young Arab returning from work was kicked into bloody pulp.
"As the police reinforcements poured into town to protect the Arabs, the rioters scattered down side streets, breaking shop-windows, stoning and overturning cars and trucks. Before the police finally restored order, Ramle was a shambles and twelve had been severely beaten or knifed. 'For a time', said one polish-born Ramle Jew, 'I thought I was back in the ghetto. No angry gang of drunken goyim' - gentiles - 'was ever worse."'
This horrible onslaught took place, despite the fact the Israel police authorities knew beforehand what was to take place. A certain number of steel-helmeted police with riotshields was standing by, but the number was by far inadequate and police reinforcements arrived too late to prevent the onslaught.
What took place in Ramle on 22 August 1965 was not the first of its kind. The massacres of Deir Yasin, Kafr Qasem, Khan Yunis, and many others are still vivid in our minds. However, this repeated manifestation of Israel hatred and love for the murder of Arabs is of alarming significance and should prompt the United Nations to take action immediately, before it is too late. A human catastrophe may not be far away.
28-29 OCTOBER 1965
During the night of 28-29 October 1965, Israel regular armed forces in uniform penetrated into Lebanese territory and carried out acts of sabotage in two different places. In the village of Houla the aggressors dynamited a house, which was completely destroyed, and an adjoining house was also destroyed, a woman being killed beneath the debris. Several nearby houses were damaged by the explosion. At Maiss ej Jabal a spring with its three cisterns was dynamited and completely destroyed: the water of the spring drained away and disappeared completely into the ground.
13 NOVEMBER 1965
On 13 November 1965, Israel tanks and 105-mm recoilless guns opened heavy fire on the Syrian village of Nukheila; other heavy Israel mortars shelled the Syrian villages of Nukheila, Abbasieh and Tel-Al-Azaziat. This was followed by Israel aerial bombardment, where heavy and napalm bombs destroyed the following Syrian posts and villages: Nukheila, Mourhr Shebaa, Zaourra, Jabata-Al-Zeit and Bazaata.
29-30 APRIL 1966
At approximately midnight on 29-30 April 1966 Israel regular armed forces crossed the Armistice Demarcation Line into Jordan and launched a major unprovoked and premeditated attack against the Jordanian village of Rafat and the Rujm el Madfa'a police post, Hebron area, 3 km. inside Jordan:
(a) The Israel military force as a result of this attack have demolished completely 18 civilian houses by explosive charges;
(b) Three other houses were slightly damaged by explosives used by the attacking force;
(c) In the course of this attack and as a result of the firing by the aggressors, the villagers of Rafat managed to escape;
(d) The police post Rujm el Madfa'a was shelled and subjected to a concerted attack;
(e) As a result of this shelling and the attack, the building of this police post was severely damaged;
(f) Two soldiers were wounded;
(g) Four horses were killed near the stable.
29-30 APRIL 1966
At approximately midnight on 29-30 April 1966 Israel military forces crossed the Armistice Demarcation Line into Jordan and launched a major unprovoked and premeditated attack against the civilian village of Tel el Arba'in, some 4 kilometres inside Jordan:
At about the same time and date another Israel force attacked the Jisr Sheikh Hussein police post by bombarding the building, using 105 and 106 mm. recoilless guns and other weapons;
This unprovoked and premeditated aggressive act by the Israel forces against Jordanian civilians during the midnight time resulted in the following:
(a) The following 11 civilians killed: Mahrnoud Ahmed Suleiman, 30 years old; Tahir Hassan Ghazawi, 35; Tawfick Khalil, 25; Husni Hussein Abu A'shour, 27; Hussein Azu Zeid, 25; Shihdeh Mohammad. Sorour, 30; Hassan Abu Murad, 35; Mustafa Abu El-Sukar, 24; Hassan Saleh Eid, 55; Ali Abdul Kadir, 35; and Halima S. Mohd, a girl of 20;
(b) Three civilians wounded: Mohammad. Hassan Shaboul, 45 years old; Suleiman Ahmed Abdeh, 22; and Nimer Said Mohammad. 25;
(c) Approximately 10 houses constructed of stone, of which two were two-storeys high, badly damaged or demolished by explosions (in some places where a group of houses were close together, the destruction was so total that it was impossible to tell the exact number of houses involved);
(d) The above-mentioned persons were killed or wounded by fire directed against them by the attackers.
15 MAY 1966
On 15 May 1966, an Israel military unit maneuvering close to the Jordanian village of Badrass directed its automatic fire on the said village, causing injury to 3 children, nine to ten years of age, wounding 2 of them critically. A similar provocation and act of aggression took place on 1 March in the same area, causing injuries to a number of children who were in their school building. The Israel authorities at that time expressed their regret to the Mixed Armistice Commission, and promised to put a halt to such violations and injuries to innocent children. The incident of 15 May, however, proves that the Israelis have no intention of abstaining from such provocations and violations.
15 JULY 1966
At 17: 10 hours local time, in the afternoon of 14 July 1966, anumber of Israel jet fighters and bombers violated the Syrian air space, shelled seven Syrian areas all situated in the site of Jordan river's development scheme, hit mechanical and engineering equipment, destroyed bulldozers with napalm bombs, wounded nine civilians and killed one woman.
13 NOVEMBER 1966
At approximately 6: 15 am, the Israel armed forces crossed the armistice demarcation line in brigade strength, supported by a squadron of Mirage jets, heavy artillery, a large number of personnel carriers and more than twenty tanks. The objective of the invading force was to destroy Arab villages and hamlets south of Hebron. In particular, they subjected the villages of As Samu, Rafaat and the police post of Rujm el Madfa'a to bombardment from the air. Rujm el Madfa'a was also, together with the village of Tawawani, the target of shelling by heavy Israel artillery. 1966
NOTES TO CHAPTER FIFTEEEN
1. Livia Rokach, Israel's Sacred Terrorism (Belmont, Mass: Association of Arab American University Graduates Press, 1986), Preface, p. xvii.
2. Ibid., p. 3.
3. Matti Shavitt, On the Wings of Eagles: The Story of Arik Sharon (Tel Aviv: Olive Books, 1972), p. 39.
4. Uzi Benziman, Sharon: An Israeli Ceasar (New York: Adama Books, 1985), p. 42.
5. Shavitt, On the Wings of Eagles, p. 40.
6. Ibid., p. 44.
7. Ibid., p. 41.
8. Benziman, Sharon: An Israeli Ceasar, pp. 57-58.
9. Ibid. p. 47.
10. Ibid., p. 46.
11. Ibid., pp. 48-49.
12. Ibid., pp. 49-50.
13. Ibid.,~. 51.
14. Ibid., p. 52.
15. Rokach, Israel's Sacred Terrorism, p. 12.
16. Ibid.,p. 13.
17. Ibid., p. 13.
18. Ibid., pp. 13-14.
19. Ihid., p. 14.
20. Michael Bar-Zohar, Ben-Gurion, A Biography (New York: Adarna Books, 1978), p. 206.
21. Benziman, p. 52.
22. Gunther Rothenberg, The Anatomy of the Israeli Army (London: B.T. Batsford, Ltd., 1979), p. 92.
23. Ashley Brown, editor, Strike From the Sky: Israeli Airborne Troops (New York: Villard Books, 1986), p. 14.